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General Practice 2023

10 alterações da menstruationção: what it can be (and what to do)

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10 alterações da menstruationção: what it can be (and what to do)
10 alterações da menstruationção: what it can be (and what to do)

Alterations such as brown menstruation, prolonged, irregular or heavy menstruation can indicate more serious diseases such as endometriosis, fibroids, hypothyroidism or even cancer.

However, sometimes these changes in menstruation can also have less serious causes such as stress, weight loss and inadequate diet, or even be considered normal, such as the irregularity that is common to occur around puberty and around of menopause.

It is important to consult a gynecologist whenever there is any persistent change in the menstrual cycle for a more detailed evaluation. Know when to see the gynecologist.


The most common menstrual changes include:

1. Late period

Late period usually takes more than 35 days to come. This change is more common in women who have had their first period recently or in those who are close to menopause. In these situations, menstruation can take up to 45 days to start, which is called oligomenorrhea.

However, stress, anxiety, poor diet, intense exercise, or weight loss can also cause menstrual delays. In addition, the possibility of pregnancy should always be considered, as well as other causes such as polycystic ovary syndrome, hypothyroidism, or hyperprolactinemia. Check out other causes of late period and what to do.

What to do: whenever the delay exceeds 35 days, it is important to consider other causes, so it is important to consult a gynecologist for a more detailed evaluation, especially of the possibility of pregnancy.

Enter your data in the calculator below and check when your period should come:

2. Prolonged menstruation

Prolonged menstruation, known as menorrhagia or hypermenorrhea, is menstruation that lasts longer than 7 days, and can be caused by normal hormonal changes from puberty or pre-menopause, or due to endometriosis, fibroids, or hypothyroidism, or even for specific problems of the female reproductive system, such as malformations.

What to do: It is important that a gynecologist is consulted to identify the correct cause and initiate the most appropriate treatment. Find out how prolonged menstruation is treated.

3. Heavy menstruation

Heavy menstruation, also called menorrhagia, occurs when a woman has a very heavy menstrual flow, usually with more heavy bleeding than that seen in her previous menstrual cycles. In these cases, uterine fibroids, copper IUD use, intrauterine polyps, use of anticoagulants or clotting disorders, for example, may be involved.

What to do: It is recommended to see a gynecologist as soon as possible, because if the bleeding is very heavy, blood loss can lead to anemia or have more serious causes. In these cases, medications such as anti-inflammatories or estrogen-based medications may be needed to help slow the flow. Check out other symptoms of heavy menstruation and how to treat it.

4. Brown menstruation

Brown menstruation similar to coffee grounds, in most cases, does not indicate any problem, usually appearing at the end of the menstrual cycle, as the expelled blood is older and may become brownish.

However, brown menstruation can also occur in women who use a contraceptive implant in the arm, when switching from one oral contraceptive pill to another or due to the use of the morning-after pill. Other causes include stress, pre-menopause or polycystic ovary, but it can also be a sign of miscarriage. Know when brown period is a warning sign.

What to do: brown menstruation can be related to the end of menstruation or to the use of some contraceptive, not requiring any specific treatment. However, it is important to see a gynecologist especially in case of pregnancy, late period or bleeding outside the menstrual period.

5. Irregular menstruation

Irregular menstruation occurs when the length of the menstrual cycle, which usually ranges from 21 to 35 days, changes constantly and causes menstruation to arrive earlier or later in different cycles.

Usually, this change is common in the first 2 years after first menstruation and approaching menopause, however, other causes include stress, anxiety, poor diet, intense exercise, and weight loss. In addition, the use and exchange of contraceptives, polycystic ovary syndrome, endometriosis and uterine fibroids, for example, can also be responsible for irregularities. Find out more causes that can lead to irregular menstruation.

What to do: It is recommended that a gynecologist be consulted so that the cause of irregular menstruation is identified. In addition, it is also important to have a balanced diet, adopt daily stress relief measures and practice adequate physical exercises.

6. Little menstruation

Short menstruation, known as hypomenorrhea, is normal in women who take contraceptives and can also occur as a result of a woman's natural aging process and be indicative of pre-menopause, not indicating any gynecological problem.

In some cases, such as stress, excessive physical activity, cervical stenosis, hormonal changes from polycystic ovary syndrome or hyperthyroidism, menstruation may also be low. See other causes of low menstruation and what to do.

What to do: It is important to maintain a balanced diet, perform adequate physical activities and adopt measures to relieve stress in your routine, however, it is also recommended to consult a gynecologist to identify the cause and perform the appropriate treatment.

7. Short period

The duration of menstruation is about 4 to 7 days, but it can vary from woman to woman, and even if you only have 3 days of menstruation, which may seem like a short period of time, this can be a situation normal, as long as the woman has regular menstrual cycles.

Most of the time, short menstruation does not indicate a problem, however, if the duration of menstruation is different from usual, short menstruation may indicate hormonal changes, polycystic ovary, stress, having been caused by the use of contraceptives oral or even indicate that the woman is entering menopause.

What to do: Most of the time, this change is not a concern, however, especially when the duration of menstruation is shorter than usual, it is important to consult a gynecologist for a more detailed review.

8. Painful menstruation

Painful menstruation is also called dysmenorrhea and usually occurs due to increased contractions of the uterus to eliminate the endometrium, which is the inner layer of the uterus, causing menstrual cramps.

Although it is common for women to experience some discomfort or mild cramping during menstruation, when cramping is very strong and causes painful menstruation, it can indicate problems such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, pelvic inflammatory disease or polycystic ovaries. Learn about other causes of painful menstruation and how to treat it.

What to do: when menstruation is very painful, it is recommended to look for a gynecologist, because even if a cause is not identified, some drugs such as anti-inflammatory and contraceptives can be used to relieve pain and improve women's comfort.

9. Menstruation with chunks

Menses with lumps occurs when bleeding comes down with clots and can occur due to hormonal changes, especially when there is an increase in estrogen, which makes the endometrium firmer and can cause pieces to appear when this layer is shed.

Although this situation is usually normal, in some cases it can be caused by endometriosis, anemia or myoma, for example. Also, a period with lumps can indicate a miscarriage when it occurs in pregnant women. See other causes of period with lumps and what to do.

What to do: Most of the time there is no concern, however it is important to consult a gynecologist especially when the woman is pregnant or if symptoms such as severe pain and weakness are present.

10. Bleeding outside the menstrual period

Bleeding that occurs outside of the menstrual period is also called metrorrhagia or spotting. This bleeding can be of greater volume, occur more than once a month and have irregular intervals.

It is common to have some bleeding in the first three months of contraceptive use or if the woman forgets to take it at the correct times, however, cancer, uterine polyps, fibroids, blood clotting diseases, pregnancy and Miscarriage can also be a cause of such bleeding. See other causes of bleeding outside your period and when to see the doctor.

What to do: It is recommended to consult a gynecologist so that the cause of bleeding is identified and the most appropriate treatment is initiated.

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