General Practice 2022

Remédios for COVID-19: for home or hospital use

Table of contents:

Remédios for COVID-19: for home or hospital use
Remédios for COVID-19: for home or hospital use
Anonim

Medicines approved by Anvisa and the Ministry of He alth against COVID-19, such as Paxlovid, Evusheld and Rendesivir, prevent the virus from replicating and/or entering cells, preventing infection or the development of serious cases of COVID-19. However, they should only be used in the hospital after medical advice, as their use varies according to the general state of he alth and the severity of the disease.

There are also other medicines, such as painkillers and antipyretics, that do not fight the virus, but can be used at home, and are approved to relieve symptoms of COVID-19 such as fever, tiredness or sore throat.

Mild cases of COVID-19 can be treated at home with rest, hydration and the use of fever medication and pain relievers.The most serious cases, with more intense symptoms and complications such as pneumonia, need to be treated in the hospital, and it may be necessary to use the drugs approved by Anvisa to eliminate the virus. See more details about treatment for COVID-19.

Home remedies

Remedies that can be used at home are those that relieve symptoms, such as:

  • Antipyretics (paracetamol): to lower the temperature and fight fever;
  • Analgesics (paracetamol, ibuprofen): to relieve muscle pain throughout the body;
  • Antibiotics: to treat possible bacterial infections that may arise with COVID-19.

Although they are approved, any of these remedies should only be used under the direction of a physician.

What is the "COVID Kit"?

The "COVID kit" consists of a set of drugs that has been indicated by several he alth professionals for the treatment of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2.

This kit includes medicines such as chloroquine, ivermectin, nitazoxanide, azithromycin and even some vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin D, vitamin C and zinc, for example. However, the effectiveness of these drugs in the fight against COVID-19 is still questioned and, therefore, it is not recommended by the Brazilian Medical Association. In addition, the existence of a "COVID kit" can also encourage self-medication, which ends up causing serious he alth problems.

Medicines for use in the hospital

The drugs that are approved for the treatment of coronavirus, by Anvisa and the Ministry of He alth of Brazil are [1]:

1. Rendesivir

Redesivir is an antiviral drug for hospital use capable of preventing the replication of the virus and, thus, preventing the development of the disease.The use of Remdesivir is indicated for people positive for SARS-CoV-2 from 12 years of age and at least 40 kg who have pneumonia and who are undergoing oxygen therapy or not, as long as they are not under mechanical ventilation, and who are at increased risk of severe COVID-19.

Remdesivir was registered by Anvisa on March 12, 2021.

Side effects: the most common side effects are an increase or decrease in blood pressure, change in heart rate, fever, wheezing, difficulty breathing, nausea, vomiting, skin sores and chills, in addition to changes in liver and kidneys. Therefore, it is essential that Remdesivir is administered in the hospital so that the person is monitored and, thus, it is possible to prevent and control the side effects.

2. Paxlovid

Paxlovid is a drug composed of ritonavir and nirmatrelvir tablets, packaged together, that inhibit the replication of SARS-CoV-2, fighting the infection.Paxlovid is for hospital use, and it is recommended that its use be started up to 5 days after the onset of symptoms. It is indicated for infected adults who are not in need of oxygen but who are at high risk of developing a serious infection.

The emergency use of Paxlovid was approved by Anvisa on March 30, 2022.

Side Effects: can cause diarrhea, muscle pain, increased blood pressure and taste changes. In addition, Paxlovid may interact with other medications, including anticonvulsants, anticoagulants, and sedatives.

3. Evusheld (tixagevimab and cilgavimab)

Evusheld is a drug composed of two monoclonal antibodies, tixagevimab + cilgavimab, which act on the surface protein of SARS-CoV-2 that facilitates its entry into cells. With the use of this drug, it is possible to make it difficult for viruses to enter cells, reducing the risk of developing COVID-19.

This medication is for hospital use, in the form of an injection and is recommended to prevent COVID-19 in people aged 12 years and over who weigh more than 40 kg who cannot receive the vaccine against COVID-19, are compromised moderate or severe immune system, who are using immunosuppressive drugs and/or who have not had recent contact with people who are positive for SARS-CoV-2.

Although it is indicated for prevention, the use of Evusheld does not replace vaccination in people who do not have contraindications.

The emergency use of Evusheld was approved by Anvisa on February 24, 2022.

Side Effects: The main side effects are related to the injection, and pain, bruising, swelling and itching at the injection site may be noted. In some cases, there may also be a severe allergic reaction, with fever, chills, abnormal heartbeat, increased or decreased pressure, or swelling of the lips.Therefore, it is important that Evulsheld is used in the hospital to monitor the occurrence of adverse effects.

4. Baricitinib

Baricitinib is a drug that reduces the immune system response, decreasing the inflammation caused by COVID-19. It is approved for use in hospitalized adults who need to receive oxygen by mask, nasal catheter or high flow.

In general, the use of this drug is indicated after clinical worsening or when there is no improvement after starting treatment with corticosteroids, which can be associated with Remdesivir.

The use of Baricitinib for COVID-19 was approved by Anvisa on September 17, 2021.

Side Effects: Baricitinib can lead to liver changes, increased risk of urinary infections, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis and changes in blood cells, which may lead to decreased number of neutrophils and increased number of platelets.Therefore, it is recommended that Baricitinib be administered only in a hospital setting.

5. Sotrovimabe

Sotrovimab is another monoclonal antibody that mimics the action of the immune system, blocking the binding of the virus to human cells. It is indicated for people aged 12 years and over and weighing at least 40 kg, who have a mild to moderate infection, who are not on oxygen therapy and who are at increased risk of complications.

This medication is administered intravenously in a single dose, and is recommended between the 8th and 10th day of illness.

The emergency use of Sotrovimab was approved by Anvisa on September 8, 2021.

Side Effects: Some of the side effects related to Sotrovimab are fever, difficulty breathing, chills, abnormal heart rate and blood pressure, itching, muscle pain and dizziness, in addition to severe hypersensitivity reaction.Therefore, it is recommended that this medication be used only in the hospital under the guidance of the doctor.

6. Molnupiravir

Molnupiravir is an antiviral drug that works by preventing the replication of the virus and, thus, the development of the infection. This medication is indicated for patients who are positive for COVID-19, who do not require oxygen treatment and are at increased risk of complications. Its use is indicated within 5 days after the onset of symptoms.

Molnupiravir was approved by Anvisa for emergency use on May 4, 2022.

Side effects: Molnupiravir's side effects are related to the use of excessive doses, which may interfere with the development and growth of the fetus, if used by pregnant women, in addition to can cause diarrhea and dizziness.

Popular topic